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Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes)

Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes)
Title
Nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes)
Date 
c. 1554-1564
Medium 
Watercolor, gouache, white lead pigment, and black ink over black chalk on ivory paper, laid on paper, formerly laid on an album page
Dimensions 
Overall: 11 1/8 x 15 1/2 in. (28.3 x 39.4 cm), irregular
Description 
Avian Study
Credit Line 
Gift of Nathaniel H. Bishop
Object Number 
1889.10.4.49
Marks 
Inside cover of Album 1 contains a printed catalogue description reading: "Drawings of European Birds, a Collection of upwards of 200 Drawings, most beautifully executed colours, of European Birds, taken from Nature, and most faithfully copied with a view to be published; but from the death of the artists M. la Grese, and M. Petit, they never were engraved. Most of them are accompanied with their names, in 4 large vols. oblong folios, formerly in the Duke of Devonshire's Collection"
Inscriptions 
Inscribed along upper edge: 76. / /60/ With text in French, Greek, and Latin [see unicode field] including the following credits: At left: L'autheur. / B. Textor. At lower center: Le peintre. / Isaac la Grese. / L'escrivain. / Thomas Huilier. At right: De eadem ave, / In eum qui aliam avem pro hac / sumit, & utranque confundit. / Tun’ prorsus nigram, fuscæ varie’que volucris / Nomine Frugilegæ donas, confundis utran’que? / Vel sic, / Qui prorsus nigram fuscæ varie’que volucris / Nomine Frugilegæ donat, confundit utran’que? / Spermologus, mas, / Gay de montagne, masle. / Spermologus magis est mas paulò ac foemina fuscus, / A qua est hoc tantùm natus abesse modo. / Vel, / Spermologus magis est mas paulo ac foemina fuscus, / A qua hoc duntaxat pacto differre suevit. / Spermologus foemina. / Gay de mõtagne femelle. / Spermologus minus est mare paulò foemina fusca / A qua non aliis est aliena modis. / Vel, / Spermologus minus est paulò mare foemina fusca. / A quo non alia ulla ^ ratione recedit ^ unquam / L’autheur. / B. Textor.
Provenance 
The Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth, England; John Cassin, Philadelphia, 1869; M.Thomas & Sons, Philadelphia, 1872; Nathaniel H. Bishop, Toms River, New Jersey
Due to ongoing research, information about this object is subject to change.
Creative: Tronvig Group