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Anti-Semitism 1919–1939

 On View April 12 – July 31, 2016

New York, NY, February 17, 2016 – At a time of continuing anti-Semitic propaganda and attacks against Jewish communities in Europe and elsewhere, the New-York Historical Society will present a powerful exhibition that examines the rise of a culture of hatred. On view April 12 through July 31, Anti-Semitism 1919–1939 will trace the gradual and deliberate indoctrination of German citizens into active hatred of Jews through the ubiquitous words and images seen daily.

The exhibition will feature more than 50 objects dating from the Interwar years, drawn from the collection of The Museum of World War II in Boston, Massachusetts. Included will be examples of anti-Semitic books and signs, announcements of mass meetings that excluded Jews, the original outline of a 1939 speech by Adolf Hitler to the Reichstag about the “Jewish Question,” and a printing of the Nuremberg Laws denying Jews the basic rights of citizens that laid the legal foundation for the Holocaust.

Many objects on display will be disturbing to view, but they serve to convey the dangers of ignoring or discounting anti-Semitic discourse and underestimating the impact of hateful propaganda and religious intolerance more generally—a lesson of particular importance for the 200,000 New York City public school students who learn history with New-York Historical each year. The exhibition will also help explain the connection between anti-Semitism in Europe and the history of New York City and America, as those who fled Nazism deeply impacted American cultural, educational, and scientific institutions.

“Anti-Semitism is among the most harrowing topics of 20th-century history,” said Dr. Louise Mirrer, President and CEO, New-York Historical Society. “While it is painful to see artifacts from a culture of hatred, understanding how such a horrifying moment in history developed is fundamental to helping us better grasp current events.  The moral questions raised by the rise of Nazism in Germany transcend geographical and temporal boundaries, and it is the responsibility of institutions like ours to educate and inspire contemporary audiences to reflect on the roles and responsibilities of individuals, organizations, and nations when confronted with injustice. In addition, anti-Semitism is essential to the history of our city, as New York was so drastically changed by the influx of Europeans escaping Nazism. ”

Historical Background of the Exhibition
Long before Adolf Hitler rose to power, anti-Semitism plagued Europe. In Germany, the punitive 1919 peace agreement ending World War I exacerbated existing prejudices. Some people began to blame the Bolsheviks and “the Jews” for Germany’s forced demilitarization, its exorbitant reparations payments to the victorious Allied Powers, and the collapse of its economy. As the Nazi Party rose to power, it began a long campaign of indoctrinating German citizens with violent messages of hate through the widespread dissemination of anti-Semitic propaganda. After consolidating its rule, it passed the Nuremberg Laws, systematically codifying anti-Semitism. Among these measures was the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor, forbidding marriages and extramarital relations between Jews and non-Jews. In a 1938–39 questionnaire on view in the exhibition, Helga Fräenkel sought permission to marry the father of her children. The request was denied because she was Jewish.

The Nazi leadership passed increasingly harsh anti-Semitic laws that restricted the movement and lives of Jews. As shown through signs on view in the exhibition, Jews were forbidden to use the same park benches as their fellow German citizens who had been defined as “Aryans” and eventually were forbidden altogether from entering parks. These actions normalized the steadily mounting physical violence against Jews and destruction of their property, leading to their forced relocation to concentration and death camps, and ultimately to Hitler’s “Final Solution” to the “Jewish Problem”—the murder of six million European Jews.

Under the Nazi Regime, anti-Semitism penetrated every aspect of life, and even children’s books were not immune from its reach.  Never Trust a Fox on the Green Heath and Never Trust a Jew by His Oath (1936) was an anti-Semitic children’s book printed by Julius Streicher’s publishing house. The author, Elvira Bauer, was 21 when she wrote this book. In The Jew as Destroyer of the Race (1934), one of the most virulent anti-Semitic books printed, “Aryan” women were warned about the dangers of associating with Jews. Both of these books will be on view in the exhibition.

Exhibition Publication & Public Programming
The exhibition will be accompanied by a companion book with a foreward by Dr. Louise Mirrer, President and CEO, New-York Historical Society.

To help visitors understand the exhibition and share their feelings about the content of the show, New-York Historical has developed educational and public programs to accompany the exhibition. Visiting middle and high school students will split their time in the gallery, where they will trace the rise of anti-Semitism in Germany, and the classroom, where they will use items from the Library collection to follow the parallel rise of anti-Semitism in the U.S. and its ramifications. New-York Historical is also partnering with Facing History and Ourselves, an international educational and professional development organization, on a full-day workshop for teachers on April 19.

On Thursday, May 26, Abraham Foxman, world-renowned as a leader in the fight against anti-Semitism, bigotry, and discrimination, will speak at New-York Historical about the lessons he’s learned from 50 years of fighting anti-Semitism and hate speech. As part of New-York Historical’s Justice in Film series, Forbidden Games (1952), a French film that follows a young girl orphaned by Nazi airstrikes, and Europa Europa (1990), a German film about a Jewish boy posing as a German orphan in WWII Europe, will be shown this spring.

Anti-Semitism 1919–1939 is made possible by support provided by the Blavatnik Family Foundation, the Charina Endowment Fund, the Barbara K. and Ira A. Lipman Family, Ed and Sandy Meyer, Ann and Andrew Tisch, Lori and Mark Fife, Cheryl and Glen Lewy, Pam and Scott Schafler, the David Berg Foundation, Norman S. Benzaquen, Carol and Roger Einiger, Martin and Ahuva Gross, Patti Askwith Kenner, Ruth and Sid Lapidus, Martin Lewis and Diane Brandt, Sue Ann Weinberg and Tamar J. Weiss.

About the New-York Historical Society
The New-York Historical Society, one of America’s preeminent cultural institutions, is dedicated to fostering research and presenting history and art exhibitions and public programs that reveal the dynamism of history and its influence on the world of today. Founded in 1804, New-York Historical has a mission to explore the richly layered history of New York City and State and the country, and to serve as a national forum for the discussion of issues surrounding the making and meaning of history.

Press Contacts
Ines Aslan                                                                         Julia Esposito
New-York Historical Society                                        Polskin Arts & Communications Counselors
(212) 485-9263                                                                 (212) 715-1643
ines.aslan@nyhistory.org                                             julia.esposito@finnpartners.com

Wednesday, February 17, 2016
Creative: Tronvig Group