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Berlin, Ira, and Leslie M. Harris, eds. Slavery in New York. New York: New Press, 2005.

Gellman, David N., and David Quigley, eds. Jim Crow New York: A Documentary History of Race and Citizenship, 1777–1877. New York: New York University Press, 2003.

Harris, Leslie M. In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626–1863. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Hodges, Graham Russell. Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613–1863. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

White, Shane. Somewhat More Independent: The End of Slavery in New York City, 1770–1810. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1990.

White, Shane. Stories of Freedom in Black New York. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2002.

Multimedia Resources

New-York Historical Society. Hidden Sites of Slavery and Freedom: A Walking Tour of New York City.

New York State Council for the Social Studies. New York and Slavery: Complicity and Resistance.

Potts, Ian (producer). Slave Island: New York's Hidden History. Princeton, N.J.: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 2004.