Guide to Printed American Judaica

An Annotated Bibliography of Printed American Judaica, 1676-1835
Patricia D. Klingenstein Library of the New-York Historical Society

Compiled and written by Sarah Levy, Library Intern, Summer 2017

 

Introduction

  • This bibliography relies for the most part on Robert Singerman’s Judaica Americana. Unlike Singerman, however, it includes Christian Hebraism.
  • The genre, subject, and note lines are taken from the online catalog of the N-YHS library.
  • Check the library’s catalog (bobcat.library.nyu.edu/nyhistory) for more information on any entry.
  • “nn” means that Singerman does not note the New-York Historical Society’s holding of the item.
  • The bibliography is in chronological order.

Bibliography

1. Hubbard, William. The happiness of a people in the wisdome of their rulers directing and in the obedience of their brethren attending unto what Israel ougho [!] to do: recommended in a sermon before the Honourable Governour and Council, and the respected Deputies of the Mattachusets [!] colony in New-England. Preached at Boston, May 3d. 1676. being the day of election there. (Boston, Printed by John Foster, 1676). 

An election day address delivered before the leaders of the Massachusetts Bay colony by William Hubbard (1621-1704), a clergyman and historian who studied medicine and theology as a member of the first graduating class of Harvard. As the minister of Ipswich, Hubbard was known for his more moderate and liberal values; in this sermon, he critiques the harsher aspects of New England’s spiritual leadership while still promoting obedience to the government and to one’s place in the hierarchy. “It is order that gave beauty to this godly fabric of the world.” The Puritans in America saw themselves as new Israelites entering the promised land, and Hubbard cites a multiplicity of Biblical examples to make his point about the relationship between people and government.

  • Genre/Form:  Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject:  Election sermons -- Massachusetts.
  • Notes:  Issued with the author’s A narrative of the troubles with the Indians in New-England.
  • References: Singerman 0001, Evans 214
  • Call number:  Y 1677 .H

2. Colman, Benjamin. A discourse had in the College-Hall at Cambridge, March 27. 1722. Before the baptism of R. Judah Monis… To which are added three discourses written by Mr. Monis himself, The truth, The whole truth, and, Nothing but the truth. One of which was deliver’d by him at his baptism. (Boston: Printed by S. Kneeland for Daniel Henchman, 1722).

One discourse by Coleman, a Boston pastor, and three by Judah Monis (1683-1764), a Jew who converted to Christianity shortly before accepting a Christian-only teaching position at Harvard (see Entry 5). His conversion, which Coleman calls “an occasion so rare and singular,” was viewed angrily by Jews and skeptically by Christians. These discourses, in which Monis uses proofs from Jewish sources to defend the truth of Christianity and Jesus, were part of an attempt to prove sincerity to his new faith. The respected Reverend Increase Mather writes in the preface that Monis (the first Jew he knows to have converted) is an honest convert and an asset to the Christian religion.

  • Genre/Form: Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Monis, Judah, 1683-1764; Christianity; Judaism -- Works to 1900; Bookbinding -- United States -- Specimens; Watermarks -- Specimens.
  • Notes: Each of the four discourses has a separate title page and pagination; the third and fourth are signed continuously. None of the discourses is known to have been issued separately.
  • References: Singerman 0015, Rosenbach 17, Evans 2324
  • Call number: Y1722.Colma Disco

3. Willard, Samuel. The fountain opened: or, The admirable blessings plentifully to be dispensed at the national conversion of the Jews. From Zech. XIII, I. Second edition. (Boston: Printed by B. Green, 1722). 

Religious treatise arguing that the conversion of the Jews to Christianity is inevitable and will lead to much good. Willard (1640-1707), who served as a teacher of a church in Boston and vice president of Harvard, claims that when the Jews finally return to God and accept Jesus as the true messiah, “there shall be a more peculiar opening of Christ as a fountain of life,” leading to “spiritual felicity.”

  • Genre/Form: Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Jews -- Conversion to Christianity
  • Notes: The Appendix, p. 31-40, is signed: Sept. 21. 1722. Samuel Sewall; p. 39 misnumbered 37; t.p. "Or" O displaced downward; paper repair on t.p. verso
  • References: Singerman 0019, Rosenbach 23, Evans 2406
  • Call number: Y1722

4. The Decree in the case of Solomon De Medina, Mosesson and Company, merchants in London, and Roderigo Pacheco, Jacob De Lara and Manuel de Costa, bearers of their orders, complainants against Rene Het and the executors of Andrew Fresneau, deceased, defendants, in cancellaria Nova-Eborac. (New York: Printed and Sold by William Bradford, 1728).

Solomon de Medina (1650-1730), an army contractor for King William III of England and one of the greatest Jewish banker-merchants of his day, was the first Jew to be knighted. In 1721, a shipment of tobacco he’d purchased from the King of Spain was seized by a British captain and brought to New York. The captain filed a libel for the rights to the cargo, but the New York Admiralty rejected it. Medina sent Roderigo Pacheco, a prominent Jewish merchant in New York, to retrieve his tobacco. When the merchants holding the tobacco refused to give it up, Medina sued. As this Decree states, the defendants were found guilty of fraud. They were ordered to turn over all the tobacco they were still holding and pay Medina back for whatever they had sold.

  • Genre/Form:  court decree
  • Subject: De Medina, Solomon;   Het, Rene; Fresnau, Andrew; Pacheco, Roderigo; De Laura, Jacob; De Costa, Manuel; Mosesson and Company; Equity -- New York (State) -- New York; New York (N.Y.) -- History -- Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775 -- Sources
  • Notes:  “The New York Historical Society from Charles Ewer, 1847”
  • References: Singerman 0022, Rosenbach 26, Evans 3019
  • Call number:  Y1728 .De M Oversize

5. Monis, Judah. Dikduk Leshon ʻivrit = Dickdook Leshon Gnebreet = A Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue, being an Essay to bring the Hebrew Grammar into English… (Boston: Printed by Jonas Green, 1735). 

The first Hebrew grammar printed in America, composed by Judah Monis (see Entry 2), the first Hebrew lecturer in North America and the first Jew to receive a college degree in the American colonies. Monis wrote this book as a textbook for his students at Harvard and for others who wished to read the Old Testament in its original language. It was required reading for all Harvard students for 25 years, and until Harvard imported the Hebrew type needed to print this book, Monis’s students had to copy the textbook by hand. Includes the first American-English versions of the Lord’s Prayer and the Apostles’ Creed. Heavy emphasis on the use of Hebrew vowel points for pronunciation.

  • Genre/Form: Hebrew grammar
  • Subject: Hebrew language -- Grammar -- Early works to 1800
  • Notes: Inscription on front free end-paper: "Samuel Eaton his Grammar. Precd. Oct. 2d: 1759. | Began to learn Octo. 5. 1759. | Perus’d by Sam Eaton A.M et C.D.M." Ms. note on t.p., above title: "Went to the [Presidt?] for this Grammar, 1759, S. Eaton." Also bearing Samuel Eaton’s autograph on front cover and ms. notes within the text. Bound in original paper wrappers.
  • References: Singerman 0024, Rosenbach 28, Evans 393, Deinard 165
  • Call number: Y1735.Monis

6. Franckel, David ben Naphtali Hirchel. A thanksgiving sermon, for the important and astonishing victory obtain’d on the fifth of December, 1757. By the glorious king of Prussia, over the united, and far superior forces of the Austrians in Silesia: : preach’d on the Sabbath of the tenth of said month at the synagogue of the Jews, in Berlin. 9th and 10th editions. (Boston: Reprinted and sold by Green and Russell, 1758).

Originally printed in Berlin, translated from German into English and reprinted in London and Boston. Franckel (1704-1762), chief-rabbi of Berlin, Talmudist, and teacher of Moses Mendelssohn (see also Entries 54 and 76), delivered this sermon to thank God for Prussia’s recent military success against Austria in the Seven Years’ War. He quotes nearly the entire chapter 14 from Genesis to draw a parallel between Abraham’s miraculous victory in Biblical times to King Frederick’s miraculous victory in the modern day. He patriotically implores God to continue to protect the king and reminds the Jewish community how they had engaged in a day of public prayer and humiliation for this very outcome. Even at a time when Jews had very few political rights in Prussia, there was a growing desire to show their identification with the larger national body.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Sermons, German; Thanksgiving Day -- Sermons -- 18th century; Jewish sermons -- 18th century; Seven Years’ War, 1756-1763
  • References: Singerman 0030 (variant), Rosenbach 35, Evans 8128
  • Call number: Y1758.Fra Thank (9th edition), Y 1758.Frank Thank (tenth edition)

7. Sewall, Stephen. An Hebrew grammar. Collected chiefly from those [notes] of Mr. Israel Lyons, teacher of Hebrew in the University of Cambridge; and the Rev. Richard Grey, D.D. Rector of Hinton, in Northamptonshire. Includes  a praxis, taken from the sacred classics, and containing a specimen of the whole Hebrew language: with a sketch of the Hebrew poetry, as retrieved by Bishop Hare. (Boston: Printed by R. and S. Draper, for the honorable and reverend president and fellows of Harvard-College, 1763).

Sewall (1734-1804) was the Harvard Hebrew lecturer and the first chair of Hebrew at an American college. His textbook replaced the one written by his predecessor, Judah Monis (see Entry 05).

  • Genre/Form: Hebrew grammar
  • Subject: Hebrew language -- Grammar; Hebrew poetry
  • Notes: Copy imperfect: leaf [A]1 mutilated affecting text; Calligraphic signature of John Wentworth on front free endpaper, signature and date on leaf [A]1r: John Wentworth’s Hebrew G[...] November Second one thous[...] and sixty four. (inscription partially lost to mutilation)
  • References: Rosenbach 43, Evans 9514
  • Call number: Y1763.Sewa

8. Pinto, Isaac. Prayers for Shabbath, Rosh-Hashanah and Kippur, or, The Sabbath, the beginning of the year, and the Day of Atonements; : with the Amidah and Musaph of the Moadim, or solemn seasons, according to the order of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. (New York: Printed by John M. Holt, A.M. 5526 [1766]). 

The first complete English translation of a Jewish prayer-book and the first Jewish prayer-book to be published in America. Includes the prayers for the Sabbath and holidays (and a prayer for King George) according to the tradition of Sephardic Jews. Translated by Isaac Pinto (1720-1791), Jewish merchant and scholar, member of Congregation Shearith Israel, and one of the first official translators hired by the United States government. Synagogue services at Shearith Israel were conducted in Hebrew, “the sacred tongue with which God chose to reveal himself to our ancestors,” but Pinto decided an English translation was necessary because “many [congregants] know Hebrew imperfectly, and some not at all.” Pinto’s version is English only; later translations included Hebrew and English side by side.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish liturgical book
  • Subject: Judaism -- Sephardic rite -- Early works to 1800; Judaism -- Sephardic rite -- Prayers and devotions -- Early works to 1800.
  • References: Singerman 0040, Rosenbach 46-47 (variant), Evans 10343-44, Deinard 951
  • Call number: Y1766.Sid Pra

9. Green, Jacob. An inquiry into the constitution and discipline of the Jewish Church; : in order to cast some light on the controversy, concerning qualifications for the sacraments of the New Testament. With an appendix. (New York: Printed by Hugh Gaine at the Bible and Crown in Hanover-Square, 1768). 

Entering an ongoing theological debate about the sacraments, Green (1722-1790) refutes the claim that the Old Testament covenant between God and the Jewish people proves that church membership and the sacraments must be available to all. Rather, he argues from the New Testament that only those who are saved can truly enter the Church, and that only God can determine who is saved (the Calvinist position). He follows his argument with a description and Q & A of Presbyterian principles. Throughout his life, Green, a reformer, theologian, and minister, was dedicated to purifying the church by raising standards and ensuring that all members were performing good works and leading exemplary lives.

  • Genre/Form: Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Jews -- Politics and government -- Early works to 1800; Judaism -- Early works to 1800; Covenant theology -- Early works to 1800; Church membership -- Early works to 1800.
  • References: Singerman 0043, Rosenbach 49, Evans 10915
  • Call number: Y1768.Green Inq

10. Karigal, Haijm Isaac. A sermon preached at the synagogue, in Newport, Rhode-Island, called "The salvation of Israel:" on the day of Pentecost, or Feast of Weeks, the 6th day of the month Sivan, the year of the creation, 5533: or, May 28, 1773. Being the anniversary of giving the law at Mount Sinai. (Newport, RI: Printed and sold by S. Southwick, 1773). 

A sermon given by “the learned and venerable” Rabbi Haijm Isaac Karigal of Hebron (1733-1777) for the Newport synagogue of Rhode Island on the holiday of Shavuoth (Pentecost), the day Jews believe they were given the Torah by God. Emphasizes the importance of adhering to both the written law of the Torah (“the bread”) and the divine tradition that governs Jewish lives (“the wine”). Refutes the “heretics” who deny God’s role in shaping history and claim that parts of the law can be abandoned or changed. Translated from Spanish by Abraham Lopez.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Bible. O.T. Psalms LXVIII, 8 -- Sermons -- Early works to 1800; Jewish sermons, American -- 18th century; Shavuot sermons -- 18th century; Shavuot -- Early works to 1800
  • References: Singerman 0048 (NYHS not noted), Rosenbach 58, Evans 12833
  • Call number: Y1773.Kari Sermon

11. Adams, Hannah. An alphabetical compendium of the various sects which have appeared in the world from the beginning of the Christian æra to the present day. With an appendix, containing a brief account of the different schemes of religion now embraced among mankind. The whole collected from the best authors, ancient and modern. (Boston: Printed by B. Edes & Sons, no. 42, Cornhill., M,DCC,LXXXIV. [1784]).

  • Genre/Form:
  • Subject: Religion -- Dictionaries.
  • Notes: Preface signed and dated: Thomas Prentiss, Medfield, September 2, 1784. Second and third editions (Boston, 1791 and 1801, respectively) published with title: View of religions ; fourth edition (Boston, 1817) has title: A dictionary of all religions. cf. Sabin, Bibliotheca americana.
  • References: Singerman 0057 nn, Evans 18319, Marcus 6
  • Call Number: BL31 .A3 1784 

12. Cursory remarks on men and measures in Georgia. ([United States : s.n.], Printed in the year MDCCLXXXIV. [1784]). 

An attack on a corrupt (unnamed) Chief Justice by “a citizen” of Georgia who felt duty-bound to expose to society the character of such an evil man. One of the wrongs  this Chief Justice committed was ruling in favor of a Jew who claimed that an Indian, being an Indian, had no right to sue him. The author goes on to explain that technically Jews should have no rights of citizenship in America and that Jews are not entirely suited for republican government; their insidious plan to take control of the government and outlaw Christianity must be stopped. Of course, the author assures his readers, he is entirely without prejudice to those of other religions.

  • Genre/Form: political pamphlet
  • Subject: Jews -- Georgia -- Early works to 1800; Justice, Administration of -- Georgia -- Early works to 1800; Due process of law -- Georgia -- Early works to 1800; Georgia -- Politics and government -- 1775-1865
  • References: Singerman 0059, Evans 18430
  • Call number:  Y1784 .Curs

13. Ellwood, Thomas. Davideis, the life of David, King of Israel : a sacred poem : in five books. (Philadelphia: Printed and sold by Joseph Crukshank, M DCC LXXXV. [1785])

Relates the story of the Biblical King David of Israel in verse. Written especially for the youth, of either sex, “to improve their time and studies by employing both in reading better books, and on better subjects, than too many of them too often do.” Doesn’t shy away from David’s sins, which are great for teaching lessons.

  • Genre/Form: long epic
  • Subject: David, King of Israel -- Poetry.
  • References: Singerman 0027 nn, Evans 6667 19001
  • Call Number: Y 1785 .E 

14. Edwards, Jonathan. Observations on the language of the Muhhekaneew Indians: in which the extent of that language in North America is shewn, its genius is grammatically traced, some of its peculiarities, and some instances of analogy between that and the Hebrew are pointed out ... (New Haven: Josiah Meigs, 1788).

Primarily a discussion of the Mohegan language and grammar and a lesser discussion of comparative grammar and vocabulary of the Algonquian languages.  The author lived among the Indians at Stockbridge his whole life to the effect that “even all my thoughts ran in Indian… it became more familiar to me than my mother tongue.” With this special background, he is able to refute some incorrect notions about the Mohegan language’s simplicity, discusses the peculiarities of the Mohegan language, and show the similarities it shares with different native languages. Edwards presents evidence to support the theory that the Indian languages resemble Hebrew, but he leaves  open the question of whether or not the Indians are really the descendants of the Lost Tribes of Israel (see also Entries 21, 47, 71, 81, and 85). Includes comparative glossaries and rules for future researchers when compiling vocabulary lists. Published at the request of the Connecticut Society of Arts and Sciences.  

  • Genre/Form: Native American languages
  • Subject: Algonquian languages; Indians of North America -- Languages; Mohegan language.
  • Note: Inscribed “For ? M. Moore/ From Jonathan Edwards”
  • Refernces: Singerman 0066, Rosenbach 77, Evans 21068
  • Call number: Y1788 .Edw

15. DeCordova, Joshua Hezekiah. Reason and faith, or, Philosophical absurdities, and the necessity of revelation. Intended to promote faith among infidels, and the unbounded exercise of humanity among all religious men. (Philadelphia: Printed by F. Bailey, 1791).          

The first extensive, original work on Judaism written and published in America. A defense of revealed religion and divine providence written by Dutch rabbi and preacher Joshua DeCordova (1720-1797) for his community in Jamaica to combat what he called the corrupting influences of modern philosophy. DeCordova refutes the “absurd” philosophers of old and the “heretical” Enlightenment thinkers of his day by using their own language and philosophical tools against them. He shows how reason and logic, as well as an examination of the miraculous Jewish past, should lead one to embrace God and attain true faith.  Although he argues in a distinctly “rabbinic” way to prove the truth of Judaism, he also defends the validity of all revealed religions, resulting in this work being circulated among Jews and non-Jews alike during the 1800s. This version specifically was printed by a non-Jew for a Christian audience.

  • Genre/Form:  Jewish discourse/sermon
  • Subject:  belief and doubt; faith; revelation
  • Notes: inscribed “presented” on first page, “Albert Gallatin 1795” on t.p.
  • References: Singerman 0071 nn,  Rosenbach 84, Evans 23728
  • Call number: BD215 .D43 1791

16. Guénée, Antoine. Letters of certain Jews to Monsieur Voltaire: containing an apology for their own people, and for the Old Testament; with critical reflections and a short commentary extracted from a greater ; in two volumes. / translated by Philip Lefanu. (Philadelphia: Printed by William Young, bookseller, no. 52, Second-Street, the corner of Chesnut-Street., M,DCC,XCV. [1795]).

  • Genre/Form:
  • Subject: Voltaire, 1694-1778. Bible. O.T. -- Evidences, authority, etc. Jews -- History.
  • Notes: p. 324 misnumbered 423
  • References: Singerman 0094 nn, Rosenbach 103, Evans 28781
  • Call Number: Beekman Collection BM648 .G813 1795

17. Levi, David. A defence of the Old Testament: in a series of letters addressed to Thomas Paine, author of a book entitled, "The age of reason… (New York: Printed by William A. Davis, for Naphtali Judah, 1797).

A response to Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reason, in which he denies the authenticity and authority of the Old Testament. Levi, (1742-1801), an English Jew and the most authoritative spokesman for Judaism in the English-speaking world at the time, thought it was imperative that he try to save those souls who might be swayed into atheism by the famous Paine’s words. He stresses that he is not a Christian priest or a preacher and therefore has no selfish ulterior motive in writing this book. The book, formatted as a series of letters, sets out to prove that Moses is the author of the Old Testament, the precepts contained within are rational and just, and the history of the Jewish people, in fulfilling Biblical prophecies, proves the existence of God and the divinity of the Bible. Levi frequently responded to deists, missionaries, and millenarians.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish apologetics
  • Subject: Paine, Thomas, 1737-1809. Age of reason. Bible. O.T. -- Apologetic works.
  • Notes: N-YHS copy 1 contains ownership stamp of Stephen Allen on p. [5]. Inscription on inside cover reads “Presented Sept. 15, 1879, By Mrs. Foote and Mrs. Belden, Daughters of M. Allen.”
  • References: Singerman 0114 nn, Rosenbach 114, Evans 32376
  • Call Number: BS480 .L48 1797 

18. Johnson, John B. (John Barent). The dealings of God with Israel and America : a discourse, delivered on the fourth of July, 1798. (Albany: Printed by Charles R. & George Webster, at their bookstore, in the White House, corner of State and Pearl-Streets., MDCCXCVIII. [1798]). 

In this sermon delivered on Independence Day, Rev. Johnson speaks of how God  has conferred on Americans the same special blessings and advantages he promised to the Israelites. “We also have a land flowing with milk and honey… We also possess the knowledge of the true religion… Free not only as men, [we] are free as Christians.” He charges Americans to appreciate and defend their liberty and show their gratitude to God. He warns of the dangers of corruption and  ignorance and factions. Religion and virtue, he says, are “the best security and essential supports” of republican government, and unity is “the Rock of our political salvation.”

  • Genre/Form:  Fourth of July addresses -- 1798
  • Subject: independence
  • Notes: “Rev a D. Moore from John B. Johnson”
  • References: Singerman 0019, Evans 33937
  • Call number:  Y 1798 .J

19. Seixas, Gershom Mendez. A discourse, delivered in the synagogue in New-York,: on the ninth of May, 1798, observed as a day of humiliation, etc. etc. Conformably to a recommendation of the President of the United States of America. (New York: Printed by William A. Davis & Co. for Naphtali Judah, bookseller, 1798). 

A sermon delivered by Rev. Seixas (1745-1816), hazzan (cantor) and religious leader of Congregation Shearith Israel, New York, on a day of fasting and prayer declared by President Adams during a threatened war with France. Seixas, the so-called “patriot preacher,” starts by blessing the union of America and praying that the country will once again be respected in the eyes of the world. He implores the community to thank God for preserving the Jewish people thus far and to walk in God’s ways of justice, charity, and wisdom. He charges the congregants to do their duties as both individuals and members of a community, as Jews and as citizens of the United States.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Jews -- United States; Humility -- Religious aspects -- Judaism; God; Luce grant
  • References: Singerman 0123 nn, Rosenbach 118, Evans 34524
  • Call number: Y1798 .Seder

20. Priestley, Joseph. A comparison of the institutions of Moses with those of the Hindoos and other ancient nations; with Remarks on Mr. Dupuis’s Origin of all religions, The laws and institutions of Moses methodized, and An address to the Jews on the present state of the world and the prophecies relating to it. (Northumberland [Pa.] Printed for the author by A. Kennedy, 1799).

A comparison of Judaism and the heathen religions meant to disprove French professor Dupuis’s hypotheses that the Hebrew Scripture is an imitation of the Hindu Vedas and revealed religions are false. Priestley (1733-1804) explains why aspects of Hinduism are immoral or illogical and then shows how the Jewish equivalent is much better. He then lays out the main principles of Judaism, categorizes the precepts, and in an address to the Jews, predicts that restoration and conversion are coming soon. He rejects the notion that the Bible is purely “astrological allegory” and nothing of history; he says the world will outvote Dupuis’s “deranged” disbelief in God. At the end, A catalogue of books by the author reveals that in addition to theology, Priestly dabbled in chemistry, history, grammar, politics, and more; he actually discovered oxygen and invented soda water. As a scientist, he tried to fuse Christian theism with Enlightenment rationalism.

  • Genre/Form: comparative religious study
  • Subject: Judaism -- Relations -- Hinduism; Hinduism -- Relations -- Judaism.
  • Notes: Inscribed by spine of t.p. “.... Jan 9 1809”
  • References: Singerman 0127 nn, Evans 36160, Wolf 16
  • Call number:  BM536.H5 P75 1799

21. Crawford, Charles. An essay on the propagation of the gospel : in which there are numerous facts and arguments adduced to prove that many of the Indians in America are descended from the ten tribes ... The 2d edition. (Philadelphia), (Printed, and sold by James Humphreys ...) (1801).

Relying on travel accounts, previous scholarship, and his own observations, Crawford attempts to prove that the American Indians are descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (see also Entries 14, 47, 71, 81, and 85). He compares Indian customs to Biblical passages and claims that when the Jews are gathered and restored to the land of Israel, the Indians will go with them, relinquishing America to the white man. Until then, however, the best way to convert the Indians (and the Jews) is to treat them with tolerance, not contempt. The appendix includes excerpts from letters and speeches of some Indian chiefs as well as notes from a Quaker meeting on aiding the Indians. Some discussion also on how best to convert the “Hindoos and negroes.”

  • Genre/Form:  Indians Ten Lost Tribes
  • Subject: Indians -- Origin; Pennsylvania imprints -- 1801; Pennsylvania imprints -- Humphreys, James; Lost tribes of Israel.
  • Notes: Inscribed “For Joseph Lyons Walrond Esq. From the author”
  • References: Singerman 0136, Rosenbach 123, S and S 370
  • Call number:  E61 .C89

22. Cruden, Alexander. A complete concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments: or, A dictionary and alphabetical index to the Bible; very useful to all Christians who seriously read and study the inspired writings… First American edition. (Philadelphia: Printed and sold by Kimber, Conrad and Co.....: Sold also by Thomas Dobson [and five others], 1806).

The first American edition of a popular concordance first printed in London in 1769 to aid both preachers and laymen and “propagate the knowledge of God.” Huge, it includes a general concordance, a table of proper Biblical names and their definitions, a concordance of proper names, a concordance of Apocrypha, and a table of names given to Christ and the Church. For clarity’s sake, but at the expense of size, each word and each reference is given its own line. Some words relating to Jewish custom and ceremony are given to enable better understanding of certain Biblical passages.

  • Genre/Form: Concordance
  • Subject:  Bible -- Concordances, English; Bible. O.T. Apocrypha -- Concordances
  • Notes: "Subscribers’ names.": p. [7]-[8]; Two lines in pencil written upside down on the inside cover. “Mary Angleman Somery (?).” Inscription on title page: “Geo Alents (?), 1820.” Pencil marks on end page
  • References: Shaw & Shoemaker 10233
  • Call number:  BS425 .C8 1806

23. Lopez, Moses. A lunar calendar, of the festivals, and other days in the year, observed by the Israelites. (Newport, RI., 1806). 

Probably the first Jewish calendar printed in America. Starts at the Hebrew year of 5566 and ends in 5619, a period of 54 years (1805-1859). Includes the lunar and solar dates of the Jewish holidays, the weekly Sabbath Torah and Haftorah portions, Sabbath start times for the city of New York, and a table of the dominical letters (letters assigned to each day of the week of the solar year). Composed by Moses Lopez (1740-1830), a Jewish clerk and mathematician, and given a stamp of approval by community leader Rev. Mr. Seixas (see Entry 19). “Itself a hybrid of which drew on European models even as it adapted itself to a new American context, the calendar circulated widely and influenced Jewish calendar production throughout the 19th century.”

  • Genre/Form: Almanac
  • Subject: Almanacs, American -- Rhode Island
  • Notes: p. [2] inscribed: "Myrtilla Florence Sept. 17, 1834"
  • References: Singerman 0163 nn, Rosenbach 135, Shaw and Shoemaker 10746
  • Call number: Almanacs ; R.I. 1806 .L86 N4

24. Pretyman, George. An introduction to the study of the Bible: containing proofs of the authenticity and inspiration of the Holy Scriptures; a summary of the history of the Jews; an account of the Jewish sects ; and a brief statement of the contents of the several books of the Old and New Testaments. (Philadelphia: published by James P. Parke... Kimber, Conrad, & Co. printers, 1806).

With Biblical criticism on the rise, Pretyman hoped this book would strengthen people’s belief in the divine authority of Scripture. In the first section, he deals with the Old Testament, providing proofs of its authenticity, a summary of its content, a history of the Jews, and a brief note on the various historical Jewish sects. The second section is devoted to the New Testament; Pretyman addresses the author, genuineness, date, and language of each gospel. His accounts of Jewish and Christian histories are drawn directly from the Bible, which he treats literally, starting at the creation of the world. A table in the back shows the places and times each book of the New Testament was written.

  • Genre/Form:  Bible studies
  • Subject:  Bible -- Introductions; Bible. Fast
  • Note: Inscribed in the inside cover to “Ph. Milledoler”
  • References: Singerman 0166 nn, S & S 11460
  • Call number: Beekman Collection BS475 .P74 1806

25. Sewall, Stephen. A Hebrew grammar, selected chiefly from those of Mr. Israel Lyons ... and the Rev. Richard Grey ... to which is subjoined, a paraxis, taken from the sacred classics. Second Cambridge edition. ([Cambridge, MA] : Printed at Cambridge by W. Hilliard, printer to the University, 1806).

  • The second edition of Entry 7.
  • Genre/Form:   Grammars -- Massachusetts -- Cambridge -- 19th century.
  • Subject:  Hebrew language -- Grammar.
  • Note: Hebrew letters stamped on inside cover
  • References:  Shaw & Shoemaker 11348
  • Call number:  Y1806.Sew

26. Holford, George. The destruction of Jerusalem, an absolute and irresistible proof of the divine origin of Christianity:including a narrative of the calamities which befell the Jews, so far as they tend to verify our Lord’s predictions relative to that event. With a brief description of the city and temple. Second American edition. (Burlington, N.J.: Published by Joseph Sharpless., 1807).

  • Genre: history
  • Subject: Jerusalem -- History
  • Notes: "Preface."--p. [3]-4, signed and dated: G.H. London, January 1, 1805. "Samuel Wood, printer, New-York."--t.p. verso.
  • References: Singerman 0175 nn, Shaw & Shoemaker 12772
  • Call Number: Offsite DS122.8 .H7 

27. Tappan, David. Lectures on Jewish antiquities: delivered at Harvard University in Cambridge, A.D. 1802 & 1803. (Cambridge, MA: W. Hilliard and E. Lincoln, 1807). 

  • Genre/Form:  Bible study 
  • Subject: Bible -- Antiquities; Jews -- Antiquities
  • References: Singerman 0178 nn, Rosenbach 144, S & S 13670
  • Call number: Offsite DS111 .T2 1807

28. The converted Jew, or, An account of the conversion to Christianity of Mr. Lapidoth and family and of the baptism of himself, his wife, and thirteen children…(Hartford, CT: Lincoln & Gleason, 1807). 

An account, based on the testimony of several ministers, of the conversion of a large Jewish family to the Dutch Reformed Church. Describes the public baptism ceremony and the obstacles the family had to overcome on the long road leading up to it. Mr. Lapidoth spent many years considering conversion but was held back by “pecuniary and familial concerns”: he and his children were supported by relatives who, like other Jews, considered conversion to be “the biggest scandal.” Finally, ministers persuaded him that salvation would come only by embracing Christ in the official way.  This account was published to satisfy the “laudable curiosity” of other Christians who “feel interested in the everlasting happiness of their fellow creatures.”

  • Genre/Form:  Jewish conversion to Christianity 
  • Subject: Jews-- Conversion to Christianity
  • Notes: On p.19 line 13, “?” instead of “;” Signed (p. 14) G. Cremer, Scribe. Signed (p.24) Benjamin Wickes, Sen.
  • References: Singerman 0169, Rosenbach 138, 142, S & S 12341
  • Call number: Y1807 .C

29. Noah, M. M. (Mordecai Manuel). The fortress of Sorrento; a petit historical drama, in two acts. (New-York: Published by D. Longworth, at the Dramatic repository, Shakespeare gallery, 1808). 

Noah was a renowned patriot, sheriff, playwrightdiplomat, and journalist. Born to a family of PortugueseSephardic ancestry, he was the most important Jewish lay leader in New York in the early 19th century and the first Jew born in the United States to reach national prominence. In this play, Noah’s first, a jailer’s daughter falls in love with a poor orphan with a secret- “he” is actually a woman, and the wife of a prisoner about to be executed unless she can save him first. Noah’s later plays were known for being very American, but this one is set in Spain and based on a French opera. (See also Entries 52, 59 and 60 for Noah.)

  • Genre/Form: play
  • Subject:  Bonilly, Jean Nicolas, 1763-1832. Léonore; ou L’amour conjugal
  • Notes:  "The leading features of the following drama are taken from the French opera of Leonora [by Bouilly]"--p. [3].
  • References: Singerman 0185, Rosenbach 148, S & S 15575
  • Call number:  PS699 Box.N7398 F5

30. Faber, George Stanley. A general and connected view of the prophecies, relative to the conversion, restoration, union, and future glory of the houses of Judah and Israel ; the progress, and final overthrow, of the Antichristian Confederacy in the land of Palestine; and the ultimate general diffusion of Christianity. (Boston: William Andrews, 1809). 

A collection of all the Biblical prophecies related to the restoration of the Jews and the overthrowing of the anti-Christ. Each prophecy is quoted directly and followed by commentary and apparent contradictions are harmonized. In the preface, Faber laments the existence of atheism and paganism and assures readers that the Millennium is imminent. He implores Protestants to treat Jews with tolerance and prays that God will have mercy and bring them to conversion and salvation soon.

  • Genre/Form:  Jewish conversion to Christianity 
  • Subject: Bible. O.T. -- Prophecies; Jews -- Restoration
  • References: Singerman 0191 nn, Rosenbach 150, S & S 17472
  • Call number:  BS647 .F3 1809

31. Stuart, Moses. A sermon, preached at the ordination of the Rev. Thomas Punderson, October 26, A.D.: to the pastoral care of the Church and Society of Union Parish, Pittsfield.(Pittsfield, MA: Milo Smith & Co., 1809).

In this sermon, Stuart argues that ministers can try all they want, but no amount of persuasion is enough to convert someone without the help of God. As it says in the New Testament, “I have planted; Apollos watered: but God gave the increase” (I Cor. III. 6th). If divine intervention weren’t necessary for conversion, than Jesus would have been successful in converting all the Jews already.

  • Genre/Form: Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject:  Punderson, Thomas; Ordination sermons
  • Notes: N-YHS copy has inscription on title page: "Dyer White"; Gift of Richard Rabinowitz; Appendix: The charge / by Rev. Daniel Collins.--The right hand of fellowship / by Rev. Alvan Hyde (p. 21-24); "Printed, by the request of a committee from Union Church and Society."
  • References: Singerman 0519, Rosenbach 338, Bruntjen 9322 (2nd ed)
  • Call number:  BV4285 .S88 1809

32. Thomas, Taylor. A concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament: also, the different significations of many important words, by which their meaning is opened; and often seeming contradictions reconciled. Likewise, a short account of several Jewish customs and ceremonies, by which many parts of Scripture are illustrated... (Brooklyn: Printed by Thomas Kirk, Sands-Street, 1809). 

A concordance of the Bible which includes key phrases and definitions in addition to verse references. A list of Biblical names and their meanings and a list of the various titles and names of Christ and the Church are appended at the end.  Disappointed that all available concordances were too long, too short, or too expensive, Taylor published this “most useful” version because he believed everyone had a duty to “search and examine” the Scriptures for God’s will. He used the 1769 edition of the popular concordance written by Alexander Cruden (see Entry 22) as a starting point.

  •  Genre/Form:  concordance
  • Subject: Bible -- Concordances, English.
  • Note: Page 364 misnumbered 365; Front page signed “Henry Surdy’s Book, 1813” and “John M. Monell’s Book April 10 1895 New York City(?)”
  • Call number:  BS425 .T3

33. Day, Mills. Proposals by Mills Day, New Haven, for publishing by subscription an edition of the Hebrew Bible from the text of Van-Der-Hoogh: prospectus. (New Haven: Mills Day, 1810). 

Prospectus for what would have been the first Hebrew Bible published in America. Includes two sample pages of Hebrew text based on the text of Van der Hooght. Proposed for a Christian audience, so that each man could read the Old Testament in its original language and decide for himself his position on the current controversy regarding the divinity of Jesus. The project never materialized. Hebrew type was very expensive and demand was low. The first Hebrew Bible produced in America appeared in 1814, the work of Thomas Dobson of Philadelphia (see Entry 42).

  • Genre/Form: Prospectuses, Bible studies
  • Subject: Hooght, Everardus van der, 1642?-1716; Bible -- Publication and distribution -- New York (State) -- New York
  • References: Singerman 0198 nn, Rosenbach 154, S & S 19935
  • Call number: Y1810 .Day

 

34. Higgins, David. The gathering of the Jews and gentiles into the church of God. : A sermon, delivered before "The Western Religious Tract Society," at Homer, N.Y. at their annual meeting, June 5th, 1811. (Auburn [N.Y.]:-- : Printed by H. and J. Pace., [1811]).

A free pamphlet distributed by The Western Religious Tract Society,  a group dedicated to printing Christian literature for evangelical purposes. Discusses the dispersion and eventual restoration of the Jews and why both these events are beneficial to Gentiles. According to the pamphlet, the Jews, so conspicuous in their fraud and avarice, are suffering as a warning to the gentile nations. But God is miraculously preserving them because they will play a role in his ultimate plan for grace and salvation. The gathering of the Jews will show God’s glory to the world, strengthening the faith of believers and bringing the wicked into the fold. When the Millennium comes (and it will come soon), there will be peace, amity, and love.

  • Genre/Form:  Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Jews -- Conversion to Christianity
  • Notes: Illegible inscription on t.p.
  • References: Singerman 0208 nn
  • Call number: Pamph BV4922 .H54 1811

35. Paterson, William. A treatise commenting the return of the Israelites to be now at hand: likewise, sitting [sic] forth some of the principal evidences or marks of the true messiah: in a letter addressed to the Jews. (Newburgh : Printed by Ward M. Gazlay, for the author, 1811). 

Paterson assures his “dear brothers of Abraham” that current events indicate that the restoration of the Jews (and Gentiles) is fast approaching. He pities the fact that right now, Jews are despised by God and man, lack virtue, idolize wealth, and don’t seem to have interest in public office. But he eagerly awaits the day when the wall between the Jews the rest of the world will collapse. Only then will Jews be endowed with wisdom and virtue and be able to assume their proper roles as examples of piety. Paterson illustrates the parallels between Moses and Jesus and lists over two pages worth of Biblical Messiah references to show the Jews that there's no way the Messiah could be anyone but Jesus.

  • Genre/Form: Christian discourse/sermon, Jewish restoration 
  • Subject: Judaism -- Relations -- Christianity; Christianity and other religions; Newburgh (N.Y.) -- History; Jesus Christ -- Messiahship
  • Call number: Pamph BM620.P38 T74 1811

36. Smith, Ethan. A dissertation on the prophecies relative to Antichrist and the last times: exhibiting the rise, character, and overthrow of that terrible power: and a treatise on the seven apocalyptic vials. (Charlestown, Massachusetts : Printed and sold by Samuel T. Armstrong, 1811).

Smith claims that the Millennium, and the destruction that precedes it, is imminent. He offers predictions for how the apocalyptic prophecies from the Bible will be fulfilled. He understands the Sixth Apocalyptic Vial from the book of Revelations to be foreshadowing the subversion of the Turkish Empire and the subsequent restoration of the Jews (along with the Afghans of the Lost Tribes) to the Holy Land (p. 325-336).

  • Genre/Form: dissertation, Christian discourse, messianism
  • Subject: Bible. N.T. Revelation -- Prophecies; Bible. O.T. Daniel -- Prophecies; Antichrist
  • Notes:  includes two pages of recommendations
  • References:  Singerman 0217, S & S 23944
  • Call number:  BS647 .S55 1811

37. Adams, Hannah. The history of the Jews from the destruction of Jerusalem to the nineteenth century. (Boston, John Eliot, Jun., 1812). 

A detailed, two-volume history based on previous history books, Biblical sources, and modern travel accounts. The appendices include (supposedly) up-to-date demographics about Jews from all corners of the globe, a brief summary of  Jewish customs and laws, and a “general character”  sketch of the Jew. Adams, the first woman in the United States to work professionally as an author, wrote this book because she believed the unique preservation of the Jewish people despite all odds stands as a testament to the truth of Christianity and the words of Jesus Christ. Because of the overtly pro-Christian tone (ex: “at length, the most interesting and important epoch arrived, when Jesus Christ made his appearance”- p.50), the work is controversial among Jewish historians. But it should be noted that Adams does go out of her way to provide a full and detailed picture and doesn’t shy away from acknowledging the Christian guilt behind much of the persecution.

  • Genre/Form:  history
  • Subject: Jews -- History -- 70-1789; Jews. fast
  • Notes: King family library
  • References: Singerman 0218 nn, Rosenbach 162, S & S 24528
  • Call number: King Library DS123 .A43 1812

38. Buchanan, Claudius. The healing waters of Bethesda: a sermon, preached at Buxton Wells, to the company assembled there for the benefit of the medicinal waters, on Whitsunday, June 2, 1811. (New-York: Published by Whiting & Watson, theological and classical book-sellers, 96, Broad-way. L. Deare, printer, New-Bruswick, N.J., 1812).   

Sermon appended by “Dr. Buchanan’s Speech Relative to the State of the Jews in the East, delivered at the public meeting of the London Society, for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews” (p.34-40). Buchanan, who had served as vice provost of a college in Bengal, urges the evangelical London Society to make more of an effort to convert the Jews who live beyond Europe’s borders, like the estimated 16,000 Jews who live in British colonial territory in India, the Afghans who supposedly are descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, and the Samaritans in the Middle East who abide by the Old Testament. He recommends sending these communities New Testaments translated into Hebrew. He commends the London Society for its noble work and issues a prayer that missionaries endure as long as there is still one Jew not converted.

  • Genre/Form:   Sermons -- 1811
  • Subject:  Mineral waters -- Therapeutic use; Mineral waters -- England -- Buxton (Derbyshire); Salvation; Missions to Jews
  • Notes: N-YHS copy: t.p. inscribed: "T. Alden- given him by Mr. Geo. Welles." Hebrew words spelled incorrectly in footnote on page 6
  • References: Singerman 0220, S & S 24968
  • Call number:  Pamph RA850.B48 B8 1812

39. Evans, John. Brief sketch of the several denominations into which the Christian world is divided. Fifth American edition. (Burlington [N.J.]: Published by Stephen C. Ustick ; [Philadelphia]: Dennis Heartt, printer, 1812. Newark [N.J.]: Printed by John Austin Crane, 1813). 2 versions. 

Stated purpose is to provide accurate and impartial descriptions of the myriad Christian denominations so that different Christians can learn to understand and respect one another. (“Replace bigotry with unity”). Also includes a brief sketch of each of the world’s most well-known religions, including Judaism (p.58-65). The Jews, Evans writes, were chosen by God to preserve his existence among the idolatrous nations. They are more interested in temporal reward and punishment than in a future state, and the two most important sects now (according to him) are the Rabbins and the Caraites. “The expectation of a Messiah is the distinguishing feature of their religious system,” but they are “infatuated” with false messiahs. The Jewish chapter concludes with a letter by Joseph Priestley (see Entry 20) wherein he “proves” that Jesus was the real messiah of the Jews and hopes that they receives salvation soon.

  • Genre/Form: religions
  • Subject: Sects; Religions -- Early works to 1800.
  • Notes: With engraved frontispiece (portraits). "Subscribers": p. [319]-324. “Samuel Mickle, Woodbury” pasted on inside cover. “Elizabeth Mickle Woodbury” inscribed once “No. 163 Sam Mickle- Woodbury 2 mo. 5th. 1812” inscribed twice. Additional Christian denominations (Unitarians, Bugrhers, and anti-Burghers Relief) penned into Table of Contents.
  • References: Singerman 0113, 0173 (earlier versions)
  • Call number: BR157 .E92 1812

40. Cary, Samuel. Review of a book entitled, "The grounds of Christianity examined, by comparing the New Testament with the Old, by George Bethune English, A. M." … (Boston, I. Thomas, Jun., J. T. Buckingham, printer, November, 1813). 

A very negative book review of George English’s The grounds of Christianity examined, which claimed, on the authority of obscure Jewish texts, that Jesus did not fulfill the Old Testament prophecies and therefore Christianity has no foundation. Cary exposes English’s “Jewish” sources  to be none other than known rejected Deists, but either way, he says, Jewish criticism of Christianity cannot be taken seriously because Jews have never fought fair. Cary responds to each of English’s objections and proves that Jesus did indeed fulfill the prophecies. He sees it as imperative that he respond to infidels and maintain public faith in religious authenticity because religion, especially Christianity, “is essential to public virtue and happiness.”

  • Genre/Form: book review
  • Subject: rationalism; English, George Bethune, 1787-1828. Grounds of Christianity examined.
  • Notes: “T. Alden” on title page; on p.35, “affirmative” crossed out and replaced with “negative”; on p.117, “and Mr. Wagenseil” crossed out
  • References: Singerman 0230 for Grounds...
  • Call number: BT1210 .C37 1813

41. Kinne, Aaron. A Display, of scriptural prophecies, with their events, and the periods of their accomplishment/ Compiled from Rollin, Prideaux, Newton, and other eminent writers. (Boston: Printed by Samuel T. Armstrong, no. 50, Cornhill., 1813). 

A three-page table of the most important Scriptural prophecies and how and when they were (or will be) fulfilled. The prophecies concerning the suffering and preservation of the Jews are listed as fulfilled. To be fulfilled in the future: the restoration of the Jews, their subsequent affliction and deliverance, and the Millennium. Prophecies regarding Jesus are omitted.

  • Genre/Form:  prophecy table
  • Subject: Bible -- Prophecies.
  • Notes:
  • References: Shaw & Shoemaker 28883
  • Call number:  Y1813.Kin Dis

42. Dobson, Thomas. Greek Bible. Thomas Dobson, having completed the edition of the Hebrew Bible, proposes to publish by subscription, the Septuagint version of the Old Testament. From the accurate edition of David Mill, printed at Amsterdam in 1725, after the celebrated Greek edition, published at Rome in 1587, well known by the name of the Vatican copy. (Philadelphia: s.n., 1814). 

Prospectus for the first Hebrew translation of the Bible in America. Selling for $8-$10, elegantly printed on fine wove paper, neatly bound in boards. Apocrypha available in Greek too, depending on demand. By the 1800s, Pennsylvania had become the Bible hub of the nation. Dobson (1751-1823) is also known for printing the earliest American version of Encyclopaedia Britannica.

  • Genre/Form: Broadsides, Prospectuses
  • Subject: Mill, David, 1692-1756. Vetus testamentum ex versione septuaginta inter pretum; Bible. O.T. Greek. Septuagint; Bible -- Publication and distribution -- United States; Publishers and publishing -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia.
  • References: Singerman 0232 0236
  • Call number: Broadsides SY1814 no.19

43. Spaulding, Joshua (or Spalding, Josiah). The burden and heat of the day, borne by the Jewish Church: a sermon preached at Shelburne before the Auxiliary Society for Foreign Missions at their annual meeting Oct. 12, 1813. (Boston : Printed by Samuel T. Armstrong, 1814). 

A sermon by Salem minister and Adventist Rev. Spalding (1751-1823) in which he interprets the New Testament verse “I sent you to reap that whereon… other men labored” (John iv, 38) as meaning that all the service and toil the Jewish people did for God before the advent of Christianity was necessary preparation for the coming of Christ and the salvation of the Gentiles. The Jews, with their abundance of ritual and financial obligations—he calculates 266 days every year devoted just to religion—bore the burden so that the Christians might reap the benefits easily and effortlessly. For this reason the Jews must be treated with brotherly charity and affection, and the debt owed them can be repaid by the conversion of the “poor, perishing heathens.”

  • Genre/Form:  Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Bible. N.T. -- Relation to the Old Testament -- Sermons; Jews -- Election, Doctrine of -- Sermons; Missions -- Sermons; Sermons, American
  • References: Singerman 0240 nn
  • Call number: BV2075 .S63 1814

44. Huntington, Dan. The love of Jerusalem, the prosperity of a people: A sermon preached at the anniversary election, Hartford, May 12, 1814. (Hartford: Printed by Hudson and Goodwin, 1814).

  • Genre/Form: Christian discourse/sermon
  • Subject: Election sermons -- Connecticut. Sermons, American.
  • References: Singerman 0239, S & S 31775
  • Call Number:  BV4251 Box.H9492 L7 

45. Harmer, Thomas. Observations on various passages of Scripture, placing them in a new light; and ascertaining the meaning of several, not determinable by the methods commonly made use of by the learned. (Charlestown [Mass.] S. Etheridge, Jr., 1815-17). 

  • Genre/Form:  bible study
  • Subject: Jews -- Social life and customs -- To 70 A.D.
  • Call number: Offsite DS112 .H285 1816

46. Prideaux, Humphrey. The Old and New Testaments connected in the history of Jews and neighbouring nations: from the declensions of the kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the time of Christ. (Charlestown, Mass.: Published at the Middlesex Bookstore, 1815-16 ([Charlestown]: J. M’Kown). Previously published in Edinburgh

  • Genre/Form:  history
  • Subject: Jews -- History; History, ancient
  • References: Singerman 0249 nn, Marcus 48, S & S 35706
  • Call number: Offsite DS62 .P8 1815

47. Boudinot, Elias. A star in the West, or, A humble attempt to discover the long lost ten tribes of Israel, preparatory to their return to their beloved city, Jerusalem. (Trenton, N.J.: Published by D. Fenton, S. Hutchinson and J. Dunham, 1816 (Trenton: George Sherman, printer). 

Inquiry into the origins of the American Indians by examining their languages, customs, religious rites, and general character (as recorded by early Spanish explorers and others). The author concludes that though there is not 100% proof, it seems most likely that the Indians are the descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (see also Entries 14, 21, 71, 81, and 85). He laments and condemns the wrongs the white man has afflicted on the Indians, but expresses hope that Indians will be restored along with the Jews back to the land of Israel. When this happens, all the gentile nations will believe in Christ. Includes a chapter on the laws and history of the Jews and uses Biblical verses as evidence that the lost tribes would have ended up in America.

  • Genre/Form:  lost tribes
  • Subject:  Indians -- Origin; Lost tribes of Israel
  • Notes: On E61 .B75, note from author inscribed on first page. “The author of the following work has the honor of presenting this copy “to the ? Historical Society of the City of New York,” … useful and important a society a Society, who … labor for the good of Posterity” signed Elias Boudinot, Burlington New Jersey Oct. 14, 1816
  • Notes: Includes a table comparing Hebrew and Native words. The Hebrew words do not all seem accurate. The author admits he knows neither language. One wonders if he expected his audience to.
  • References: Singerman 0252, Rosenbach 180, S & S 37057
  • Call number:  Y1816 .Bou

48. Cohen, Solomon Jacob. Elements of the Jewish faith, translated from the Hebrew of Rabbi S. I. Cohen. (Richmond, Virginia: William W. Gray, 1817).

An educational handbook of basic Jewish tenets and laws originally printed in London for children who were quitting Jewish school and needed to be prepared to face the Christian missionary threat. Explains in simple question-and-answer style Maimonides’s 13 Principles, each of the 10 Commandments, and Jewish approaches to faith, prayer, providence, etc. Cites frequently from the Bible, Talmud, and Maimonides. Emphasizes that adherence to religion in general and Judaism in specific will lead to true happiness. Written by German Hebraist Solomon Cohen under the guidance of Dr. Solomon Hirshell, chief rabbi of the German Jews of London, and translated into English by Dr. Josua van Oven. Generally well-received, but condemned vigorously by London engraver Salomon (Yom Tov) Bennett as heretical.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish catechism
  • Subject: Judaism-- Apologetic works
  • References: Singerman 0271,  Rosenbach 190, S & S 40507
  • Call number: Pamph BM560 .C58 1817

49. Adams, Hannah. A dictionary of all religions and religious denominations, Jewish, heathen, Mahometan and Christian, ancient and modern. With an appendix, containing a sketch of the present state of the world, as to population, religion, toleration, missions, etc., and the articles in which all Christian denomination agree. (Published by James Eastburn and company, at the Literary rooms, corner of Broadway and Pine street, N. York; and by Cummings and Hilliard, no. 1, Cornhill, Boston, 1817). 

A comprehensive list of definitions of concepts, people, sects, etc. of the different world religions. Although written by a Christian for a Christian audience, the stated goals are not to give preference to one religion over another and to avoid misrepresentation of any people. It’s been claimed that Adams’ discussion of Jews in her Dictionary initiated the study of Judaism in America. Her definitions provided insight to an otherwise uninformed audience, considering that Jews constituted less than 1% of the population of America at the time.

  • Genre/Form:  dictionary
  • Subject: religion, dictionaries
  • Notes: First published, Boston, 1784. "A brief sketch of the state of religion throughout the world, by Mr. Williams." : p. [325]-365.
  • References: Singerman earlier variant 0057, Marcus 6, Evans 18319
  • Call number: BL31 .A3 1817

50. Roscio, Juan Germán. El triunfo de la libertad sobre ed despotismo, en la confesion de un pecador arrepentido de sus errores politicos, y dedicado a desagraviar en esta parte á la religion ofendida con el sistema de la tirania. (Filadelfia, Thomas H. Palmer, 1817). 

Deals with Moses, the Hebrew monarchy, and the Maccabean uprising against Rome.

  • Subject: Political science, Jews, liberty
  • References: Singerman 0279 nn
  • Call number: Livingston JC585 .R6 1817

51. Hart, Moses. Modern religion. (New-York: Printed for the author, 1818). 

Hart (1768-1852), a Canadian businessman and Jew, “harmonize[d] the religions of mankind” to create a new, universal religion. He wished to put an end to bigotry and intolerance and restore religion to a place of truth and virtue. His religion is based on deistic philosophy and Judeo-Christian practices; the two main principles are gratitude to the Almighty Creator (nowhere is God or Jesus mentioned) and charity to mankind. Patriotism and maintaining civil order are also important. Hart really meant for people to adopt his religion, and this handbook includes an “Installation Oath” to be recited by converts, prayers, rituals for festivals and the day of rest (any day of the week but Wednesday), a marriage ceremony, everyday duties, and the rules for divorce, war, and mourning.

  • Genre/Form:  catechism
  • Subject:  Religions (Proposed, universal, etc.); Natural theology
  • References: Singerman 0285, Rosenbach 198, S & S 44274
  • Call number: Pamph BL390.H37 M63 1818

52. Noah, Mordecai Manuel. Discourse, delivered at the consecration of the Synagogue KK shirit Yisroel in the city of New-York, on Friday, the 10th of Nisan, 5578, corresponding with the 17th of April, 1818. (New York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1818). 

Discourse by M. M. Noah (see Entries 29, 59, and 60 for Noah). Goes through the history, principles, and duties of the Jewish people. Emphasizes the value of education and labor. Explores possible reasons behind the anti-Semitism and oppression plaguing Jews for 1800 years; urges the community to appreciate what a blessing having freedom of religion and toleration in America really is. Declares that as long as Jews are refused emancipation and equal rights abroad, America will be their chosen country.

  • Genre/Form: Jewish sermon/discourse
  • Subject: Jews
  • Notes: Title page “J. Pintard”
  • References: Singerman 0290, Rosenbach 199, S & S 45110
  • Call number: Y 1818 .N

53. Walker, John. A key to the classical pronunciation of Greek, Latin, and Scripture proper names: in which the words are accented and divided into syllables exactly as they ought to be pronounced, according to rules drawn from analogy and the best usage.: To which are added, terminational vocabularies of Hebrew, Greek, and Latin proper names, in which the words are arranged according to their final syllables, and classed according to their accents... (Boston: Published by Wells & Lilly. From the last London edition, 1818). 

Walker (1732-1807), stage actor, philologist, and lexicographer, produced this pocket sized pronunciation guide to Biblical names as an aid for men living in a country where reading Scripture was part of the worship and knowing “the Classics” part of the culture. For both Greek and Latin (which he treats as one) and Hebrew, he provides the rules of pronunciation, a list of names arranged alphabetically and divided into syllables, and a list of names arranged terminationally. Walker acknowledges that there is much debate over the original pronunciation of Greek and Latin and that the original Hebrew is most likely lost forever, but he believes that where there is uncertainty, English speakers should rely on analogy to English rather than the learn the rules of (more closely related) European languages. “Preserve that which has naturally sprung up in our own soil and is congenial to our native language.”

  • Genre/Form:  Leather bindings, Stained leather, Lettering pieces, Gold tooled leather, Dentelle binding (Binding); Ink stamps, Presentation inscriptions (Provenance)
  • Subject: Hebrew language -- Pronunciation.
  • Notes: Inscription on inside cover to “F. L. Hawks”
  • Call number: Hawks-Niblo Collection PE1620 .W3 1818

54. Houston, George. Israel vindicated : being a refutation of the calumnies propagated respecting the Jewish nation : in which the objects and views of the American Society for Ameliorating the Condition of the Jews, are investigated. By an Israelite. (New-York: Published by Abraham Collins, 268 Greenwich-street, 1820). 

A (fictitious) collection of letters which exposes the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (see also Entries 64, 69, 72, and 79) as nothing more than a state-sponsored evangelical group dedicated to the total conversion of Jews to Christianity.  Argues that there can be no true equality when one group assumes itself to be superior; missionary work is actually anti-American and unconstitutional. Like Jewish Enlightenment great Moses Mendelssohn (see also Entries 6 and 76), calls for pluralism, not just toleration. Page after page of vicious anti-Christian polemic based on the writings of freethinkers and deists. Most likely written by non-Jew and freethinker George Houston on commission by Jewish leaders, who felt the need to respond to aggressive Christian missionaries but did not want to inflame Christian hostility.

  • Genre/Form:  polemic
  • Subject:  Jews -- Conversion to Christianity -- United States.
  • Notes: Library copy unopened
  • References: Singerman 0323 nm, Rosenbach 210, S & S 1681
  • Call number:  Y1820.Hous

55. Judah, Samuel B. H. (Samuel Benjamin Helbert). The mountain torrent, a grand melo-drama, interspersed with songs, choruses, &c. In two acts...As performed at the New-York theatre, with universal applause. (New-York, Published by Thomas Longworth, at the Dramatic repository, Shakspeare-gallery. 1820). 

The first play by Samuel Judah, a Jewish playwright/ author turned attorney after scandal (see Entry 52). About a young woman compelled to marry someone she doesn’t love to save her father from financial danger. First performed in the Park Theater. Judah’s works never received much critical success, but Steve Feffer claims that this play is a good place to look for representation of Jews by Jewish playwrights in early nineteenth-century American theater. In Judah's plays, his subaltern status as a Jew  significantly contributes to his subversion of the paternalistic nation-building themes present in Mordecai Noah's (see Entries 29 and 60) more popular melodramas.

  • Genre/Form:   melodrama
  • Subject:   American drama
  • Notes: Without the music
  • References: Singerman 0325, Rosenbach 211, Shoemaker 1809
  • Call number:  PS699 Box.J925 M5

56. Milman, Henry Hart. The fall of Jerusalem: a dramatic poem. (New York: Published by I. and F. Lockwood, 1820 [C.S. Van Winkle, printer]). 

This play was not meant to be performed; its goal was to show readers, who might not have time to compare the Bible to history books, that the Christian prophecies did indeed come to pass. Based on Josephus, it has a mix of historical and fictional characters. In the end, the Temple and Jerusalem are destroyed, but the new Christian lovers look to the future hopefully.

  • Genre/Form:    Plays -- England -- 19th century.
  • Subject:  Jerusalem -- History -- Siege, 70 A.D. -- Drama. 
  • References:  Singerman 0326 nm, Wolf 49, Shoemaker 2271
  • Call number:  PR5021.M5 F3 

57. Stuart, Moses. Dissertations on the importance and best method of studying the original languages of the Bible. (Andover [Mass.] : Printed by Flagg and Gould, 1821).

Three essays by the German philologists Jahn, Gesenius, and Wyttenbach on why Hebrew is important and how best to learn and teach it. Some discussion on lower and higher Biblical criticism and comparative Oriental languages. Compiled and translated by Stuart (1780-1852), professor of sacred literature and the so-called father of exegetical studies in America, for his students at the Andover Theological Seminary. Stuart believed it was “absolutely necessary” that the study of Hebrew and the Classics be reformed in America: theologians can only fully appreciate and defend the Bible if they can read it in its original languages. These essays stress the importance of good instructors, good textbooks, and diligent review.

  • Genre/Form:  essays on Hebrew
  • Subject:  Hebrew language -- Study and teaching; Greek language, Biblical -- Study and teaching; Bible -- Language, style.
  • References: Singerman 0340 nn, Shoemaker 6911
  • Call number:  Pamph BS537.S88 D57 1821

58. Judah, Samuel B. H. (Samuel Benjamin Helbert). The rose of Arragon, or, The vigil of St. Mark: a melo-drama, in two acts. (New-York : Printed and published by S. King, 1822).

Judah’s second play; Rosaline and Aurelio must get past her disapproving father- and a villainous prince- before they can be united in marriage. (see Entry 55 for Judah’s first).

  • Genre/Form:  Plays -- New York (State) -- New York -- 19th century
  • Subject: marriage  
  • Notes: "A sillier piece was never penned in America, or elsewhere"--Odell (cf. Odell, G.C.D. Annals of the New York stage, vol. iii, p. 25); "As performed with unbounded applause at the New-York Theatre." "Music by Taylor."
  • References: Singerman 0350, Rosenbach 226 (2nd ed), Shoemaker 9174-75
  • Call number: Y1822 .Judah 

 

59. Noah, M. M. (Mordecai Manuel). An address delivered before the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen of the City of New-York: on the opening of the Mechanic Institution. (New-York : William A. Mercein, Printer, 1822.).

In this address at the dedication of the Mechanics Institute, Noah (see also Entries 29, 52, and 60 for Noah) stresses the importance of education and culture in making a nation civilized and prosperous. He advises the mechanic apprentices to work hard, be religious, and read whenever they have the time.

  • Genre/Form:  address before a society
  • Subject:  Mechanics’ institutes -- New York (State) -- New York…
  • Notes: Mercein’s address has own t.p., but the two addresses are paged continuously.
  • Call number:  F128 HD6519 Box 1

60. Noah, M. M. (Mordecai Manuel). Marion; or, The hero of Lake George: a drama, in three acts, founded on events of the Revolutionary War. (New-York: : Published by E. Murden, Circulating Library and Dramatic Repository, no. 4 Chamber Street., Jan. 1822).

A three act play set during the Revolutionary War. Dedicated, without permission, to a critic who “abused” the play before even seeing it (William Coleman, Esquire). Plot centers around a rebel on the run from British authorities and the village girl he loves. In the end, the lovers are reunited, the British soldiers are chased out of town, and the rebel is made an officer in the American army. A Fourth of July favorite. (see also Entries 29, 52, and 59 for Noah ).

  • Genre/Form:   Plays -- 1822
  • Subject:   United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Drama
  • Notes: N-YHS Copy: Imperfect: p. 53-56 wanting; "Plays, published by E. Murden, Circulating Library, no. 4 Chamber, near Chatham Street."--p. [71].
  • References: Singerman 0354, Rosenbach 229, Shoemaker 9722
  • Call number: PS699 Box.N7398 M2 

61. Judah, Samuel B. H. (Samuel Benjamin Helbert). Gotham and the Gothamites: a medley. (New York: Published for the author, and sold by S. King, 1823).

A 93 page satirical poem that viciously attacks the greed and characters of more than one hundred prominent New Yorkers, including ten footnoted pages devoted to Judah's Jewish playwriting contemporary Mordecai Manuel Noah (see Entries 29 and 60).  Although he published it under the pseudonym of Terentius Phlogobomus, Judah sent copies to everyone referenced in the poem and his identity was soon discovered. He was arrested and imprisoned for libel, his reputation and literary career ruined. (see also Entries 55, 58, and 62 for Judah.)

  • Genre/Form: poem 
  • Subject:  
  • References:  Singerman 0372, Rosenbach 42, Shoemaker 12971
  • Call number: Y 1823 .J

62. Judah, Samuel B. H. (Samuel Benjamin Helbert). A tale of Lexington: a national comedy, founded on the opening of the Revolution. In three acts. (New-York: Published at the Dramatic Repository, 208 Broadway. H. Sage’s Book and Music Store, 1823). 

A three act prose drama set in the era of the American Revolution. A young American girl finds out a dark secret about her British lover as tensions rise and her town readies for battle. In the end, the colonists achieve victory at Lexington, but the girl’s lover is killed. A landmark work of Jewish American literature because it introduces, in a manner, the first Jewish characters written by a Jewish playwright for the American stage. (See also Entries 55, 58, and 61 for Judah.)

  • Genre/Form:   melodrama
  • Subject:   United States -- History -- Revolution, 1775-1783 -- Drama.
  • Note:  Binder’s error: p. 55-60 in duplicate.
  • References:  Singerman 0373, Rosenbach 243, Shoemaker, 12972.
  • Call number: Y1823.Judah

63. Houston, George. Israel vindicated; being a refutation of the calumnies propagated respecting the Jewish nation; in which the objects and views of the American Society for Ameliorating the Condition of the Jews are investigated. (New York, Abraham Collins; London, Re-printed by R. Carlile, 1823).

  • Genre/Form: 
  • Subject:   Jesus Christ; Christianity and other religions -- Judaism; Jews -- Legal status, laws, etc.
  • References:  Singerman 0323, Rosenbach 210, Shoemaker 1681 earlier
  • Call number: Offsite AC905 Box .H8436 I6

64. Bancroft, Aaron. A discourse, delivered before the Worcester Auxiliary Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, April 28, 1824...published by order of the Society. (Worcester: Printed by W. Manning, [1824]).

A speech delivered at an annual meeting of the Worcester branch of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, a missionary society devoted to converting Jews to Christianity (see also Entries 54, 69, 72, and 79). Bancroft, a pastor and president of the Society, explains the purpose, history, and current objectives of the society. The Jews, he says, are persecuted as punishment for rejecting Jesus, but they were once the chosen people of God, and it is the Christian’s duty to hasten their restoration by teaching them the Gospels. Members ought to approach Jews politely (not violently like the Catholic inquisitors), send them New Testaments in Hebrew, and donate to the society.

  • Genre/Form:  society address
  • Subject:   Missions -- Jews
  • References: Singerman 0387, Rosenbach 254, Shoemaker 15172
  • Call number:  BV4251 Box .B213 D52

65. Benedict, David. A history of all religions : as divided into paganism, Mahometanism, Judaism and Christianity, with an account of literary and theological institutions, and missionary, Bible, tract and Sunday school societies; with a general list of religious publications; accompanied with a frontispiece of six heads. (Providence: J. Miller, printer, 1824). 

Like the similarly misleadingly titled work by Evans (see Entry 39), This History of all Religions devotes only 40 out of its 456 pages to Paganism, Mahometanism, and Judaism. The rest of the book is dedicated to the different denominations of the Christian world, with the stated goal being to show how Christianity isn’t as divided as most people believe. The chapter on Jews (p.42-51) discusses Jewish suffering under the Romans, Jewish suffering and civil condition after dispersion, and the long list of false Jewish messiahs. Benedict relies on Adams’s history (see Entry 30).

  • Genre/Form: religions
  • Subject: religions
  • References: Singerman 0388 nn, Shoemaker 15315
  • Call number: BL80 .B45

66. Gesenius, Wilhelm. A Hebrew and English lexicon of the Old Testament: including the Biblical Chaldee / from the German works of W. Gesenius. (Andover, [Mass.]: Flagg and Gould, 1824). Another version 1836. 

Translated and edited by Josiah W. Gibbs Sr., who felt that Gesenius’s advancements in Hebrew philology should be made accessible to all English readers engaged in this branch of “sacred learning.” Gesenius (1786-1842), a German orientalist, theology professor, and Bible critic, was the first to arrange a Hebrew lexicon alphabetically instead of by root and to study the language scientifically and comparatively as opposed to strictly religiously. For each word listed, Gesenius  provides the definition, the forms (if a verb), Biblical references, its etymology, root, and cognates in other Oriental languages. The lexicon is prefaced by a table of the Syriac and Arabic alphabets.

  • Genre/Form:  lexicon
  • Subject: Hebrew language -- Dictionaries -- English
  • Notes: inscribed "Francis L. Hawks" on flyleaf of 1824 copy
  • Call number: Hawks-Niblo Collection PJ4833 .G4 1824; Offsite PJ4833 .G4 1836 

67. Congregation Mickveh Israel (Philadelphia, PA). Charter and bye-laws of Ḳ.ḳ. Miḳṿeh Yiśraʼel = Kaal Kadosh Mickve Israel, of the City of Philadelphia : incorporated 5584. (Philadelphia: Printed by John Bioren, 1824). 

The synagogue’s Constitution outlines the rules about officers, membership, meetings, synagogue property, worship, and amendments. It is signed by the members and the Pennsylvania attorney general, Supreme Court justices, and governor. The bye-laws describe in detail each office, the structure of meetings, privileges of congregants, etc. Members must be residents of Pennsylvania; they meet at least twice annually to elect officers, discuss business, and propose rule changes.

  • Genre/Form: synagogue charter
  • Subject: synagogue rules
  • Notes:  t.p. stamped “A.B. Daniels.” On page 19, there is a Hebrew word printed backwards by mistake.
  • References: Singerman 0399 nn, Rosenbach 262, Shoemaker 17613
  • Call number: BM225.P52 C66 1824

68. Harby, Isaac. A discourse, delivered in Charleston, (S.C.) on the 21st of Nov. 1825, before the Reformed Society of Israelites : for promoting true principles of Judaism according to its purity and spirit, on their first anniversary. (Charleston [S.C.] : Printed by A. E. Miller, 4, Broad-street, 1825).

Speech delivered by playwright and journalist Isaac Harby (see also Entry 74) one year after he and his reform-minded splinter group broke away from the Spanish-Portuguese synagogue of Beth Elohim in Charleston. Harby declares that while Jews should be faithful to the written laws of Moses, they must free themselves from the unenlightened Talmud and extrapolations of the rabbis. He calls America the promised land, where freedom and security remove ignorance and bigotry. He compares himself to the Martin Luther and says he represents a new era in the history of the Jewish race; indeed, this is the first call for Reform Judaism on the American continent. This pamphlet was inscribed by the author for David Hosack, a founder of the New York Historical Society and the doctor who tended on Alexander Hamilton after his fateful duel.

  • Genre/Form:  Jewish discourse/sermon
  • Subject:  Reform Judaism -- United States.
  • Notes: “For David Hosack with the respect of the author” on t.p.
  • References: Singerman 0418, Kaganoff 26, Shoemaker 20807
  • Call number:  Y1825.Harby 

69. American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews. The third report of the American Society, for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews. : May 13, 1825. : With an appendix. (New-York: Printed for the Society by D. Fanshaw. No. 1 Murray-Street., 1825).

Includes the constitution, third anniversary proceedings, annual report, and list of members of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews (see also Entries 54, 64, 72, and 79). The goal of ASMCJ is to create a settlement for the habitation, instruction, and employment of “industrious” “Hebrew Christians” (Jewish converts); the report announces that this year, with the help of its numerous auxiliary societies across the states, the society has finally raised enough money to lease a farm. A settlement is important because although the Jews are supposed to convert, they must remain a distinct people to be restored to Palestine. Also, converted Jews, rejected by their families and still viewed suspiciously by Christians, have trouble finding employment. The appendix includes addresses by several members, including recent converts. The society is sending a mission to Europe to spread publicity and assess interest among Jews and Christians.

  • Genre/Form:  Printed wrappers (Binding)
  • Subject:   Christian converts from Judaism; Jews -- Colonization; American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews.
  • Call number:  Pamph HV3192.N5 A6 1825

70. Moore, Clement Clarke. A lecture introductory to the course of Hebrew instruction in the General Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States : delivered in Christ Church, New-York, on the evening of November 14th, 1825. (New-York: Printed by T. and J. Swords, No. 99 Pearl-Street, 1825). 

Moore, professor of Oriental and Greek literature, assures his students that though the study of Hebrew may seem hard and dull, the rewards are many. Only someone who can read the Old Testament in its original language can truly understand it, engage in Biblical criticism, and appreciate its beauty.  He praises the peculiarities of Hebrew and advises students not to get bogged down by critics or irrelevant philological debates.

  • Genre/Form:   lecture
  • Subject:    Bible -- Language, style; Hebrew language -- Study and teaching -- New York (State) -- New York;
  • Notes: Library holds 3 copies. Copy 1 inscribed on cover: "From the author."
  • References: Singerman 0421, Wolf 67, Shoemaker 21499
  • Call number:   Y1825 .Moore

71. Smith, Ethan. View of the Hebrews; or The tribes of Israel in America: Exhibiting Chap. I. The destruction of Jerusalem. Chap. II. The certain restoration of Judah and Israel. Chap. III. The present state of Judah and Israel. Chap. IV. An address of the Prophet Isaiah to the United States relative to their restoration. 2nd ed. ([Poultney, Vt.]: Published and printed by Smith & Shute, Poultney, (Vt.), 1825). 

Another attempt to identify the lost tribes of Israel with the North American Indians. Cites Edwards (Entry 14), Boudinot (Entry 47). Discusses the destruction of Jerusalem and the present state of the Jews, proves from Scripture that the restoration of the Jews must be literal, proves that the Native Americans resemble the ancient Israelites (see also Entries 21, 71, 81, and 85). Interprets an exhortation from Isaiah as speaking to modern Americans on the proper treatment of the Indians. In the appendix, challenges the Afghan theory of the lost tribes (see Entries 36 and 38) and responds to objections on the Indian theory. This second edition contains new proofs from Humboldt and American Archeology.

  • Genre/Form:  lost tribes
  • Subject:   Indians -- Origin; Jews -- Restoration; Lost tribes of Israel
  • Notes:  2 pages of Recommendations. Edition statement transposed; precedes "By Ethan Smith ..." on title page; Errors in paging: p. 18, 247 misnumbered 13, 347
  • References: Singerman 0431, Rosenbach 280, Shoemaker 22295
  • Call number:   E61 .S74

72. Frey, Joseph Samuel C. F. (Joseph Samuel Christian Frederick). The object of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews, explained, and objections answered. (New-York: Printed by Daniel Fanshaw, American Tract Society House: sold by W.B. Gilley; G. & C. Carvill; Crocker & Brewster; and J.P. Haven, 1827).   

Written in the form of a letter to a prospective member, Frey explains the objects of the ASMCJ (see also Entries 54, 64, 69, and 79) and responds to objections about the society. He stresses just how necessary it is to have a settlement in America for Jews who want to convert and claims that it’s almost insulting to have to prove why Christians have an obligation to “save” their Jewish brothers. Frey, himself a convert, defends the Jewish character from charges of greed and laziness and takes the time to defend his own actions at a recent contentious Society meeting. The appendix discusses the  origins of the society and includes excerpts from letters written by ministers in Europe struggling to advise prospective Jewish converts.

  • Genre/Form:  society
  • Subject:   Christian converts from Judaism; Jews -- conversion to Christianity; American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews.
  • References: Singerman 0446, Rosenbach 293, Shoemaker 28961
  • Call number:   Y1827.Frey

73. Croly, George. Salathiel: a story of the past, the present, and the future : in two volumes. (New-York : G. and C. Carvill [and 8 others] ; Philadelphia : Carey, Lea and Carey, and R. Small, 1828). 

An imaginative take on the legend of the “Wandering/Eternal Jew” condemned to live until the Second Coming for insulting Christ on his way to the cross. This version, which follows the adventures and sorrows of Second Temple priest Salathiel, marks the first time the protagonist is portrayed sympathetically (in a doomed Byronic hero sort of way) as a Jewish nationalist resisting the Romans and Christians. Set in the Mediterranean world of the first century, it most resembles romantic historical fiction with Gothic elements interspersed. Written by George Croly (1780-1860), Irish clergyman, poet and writer. Also called “Tarry till I Come.”

  • Genre/Form: Novels -- New York (State) -- 19th century
  • Subject: Wandering Jew; Jews in literature
  • Notes: Library copy inscribed: H. Hewitt, and stamped: Henry Hewitt.
  • References: Singerman 0455 nn, Marcus 81, Shoemaker 32855
  • Call number: PR4518 C94S16 1828

74. Harby, Isaac. A Selection from the miscellaneous writings of the late Isaac Harby : Arranged and published by Henry L. Pinckney and Abraham Moise, for the benefit of his family. To which is prefixed, a memoir of his life, by Abraham Moise. (Charleston: Printed by James S. Burges, 1829). 

A collection of the writings of Isaac Harby (see Entry 68) prefaced by a short biography which praises him as a reformer. Includes his Discourse for the Reform Society, a play, political essays, and essays of literary and dramatic criticism. A letter of approval from Thomas Jefferson is added as well. In one of his literary essays, Harby criticizes Shakespeare for being swayed by anti-Semitic public prejudices when crafting the character of Shylock.

  • Genre/Form:  selected works
  • Subject:   Jewish authors -- United States.
  • References: Singerman 0469 nn, Rosenbach 306, Shoemaker  38913
  • Call number:   PS1789 .H5 1829

75. In the Court for the Trial of Impeachments and the Correction of Errors : between Jacob Cram, plaintiff in error, and Harmon Hendricks, defendant in error. (New-York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1830). 

The Court of Errors, the final court of appeal in New York, denies Jacob Cram his motion for a new trial against Hamon Hendricks. Hendricks (1771-1838) was a prominent member of the Sephardic Jewish community in New York and a pioneer in the American copper industry. He helped transform the United States from a copper importer to manufacturer. His son-in-law Aaron Lopez, was also involved in this case.

  • Genre/Form:   court case
  • Subject: Actions on the case.
  • Notes: Defendant’s points (1 leaf) tipped in.
  • Call number: KB226.C835 H4

76. Peixotto, Daniel L. M. (Daniel Levy Maduro). Anniversary discourse: pronounced before the Society for the Education of Orphan Children, and the Relief of Indigent Persons of the Jewish Persuasion. ([New York] : Published by order of the society 1830 (New-York: Printed by J. Seymour). 

Speech given at the society’s second anniversary reception. Peixotto (1800-1843), a pioneering Jewish doctor and philanthropist born in Amsterdam, stresses the importance of education and charity, praises the industry and intellect of the Jewish people (using Moses Mendelssohn as an example; see also Entries 06 and 54), and discusses how to eradicate the roots of anti-Semitism. The society’s main goals are to “dispense knowledge and charity to the ignorant and poor of the Jews,” because “the proudest badge of any sect is that none of its members are dependent on the public.”  The society is raising money to make a school to educate teachers, who will in turn teach Hebrew to the community (necessary for preserving the faith). The recipient, Francis Jenks, was the editor of the Christian Examiner. Peixotto's gift to Jenks was no doubt driven by his desire to attain financial and moral support for his projects from the non-Jewish religious community.

  • Genre/Form:  charity society speech
  • Subject:  Society for the Education of Orphan Children, and the Relief of Indigent Persons of the Jewish Persuasion; Jewish orphans -- New York (State) -- New York; Jews -- Education -- New York (State) -- New York; Jews -- Charities.
  • Notes: Bears author’s dedication to Joseph L. Joseph. 
  • References: Singerman 0500 nn, Rosenbach 324, Cooper 2972
  • Call number:   Pamphlets Pamph HV995.N52 .S63 1830

77. Milman, Henry Hart. The history of the Jews: from the earliest period to the present time. 3 volumes. (New-York: Published by J. & J. Harper, 82 Cliff-St., sold by Collins & Hannay, Collins & Co., G. & C. & H. Carvill, O. A. Roorbach, E. Bliss, W. B. Gilley, A. T. Goodrich, White, Gallagher & White; Philadelphia: Carey & Lea, John Grigg, U. Hunt, Towar & Hogan, M’Carty & Davis, E. L. Carey & A. Hart, J. Crissy; Albany [N.Y.]: O. Steele, and Weare C. Little, 1830). 

The history of the Jews from the time of Abraham until the present day. Includes fold-out maps of Palestine and floor plans of the Temple. Hart claims that “nothing is.. .more calculated to confirm the veracity of the Old Testament history, than the remarkable picture it presents of the gradual development of human society.” He sees Jewish history as inseparable from world history and looks to the Bible to learn about the customs (dress, agriculture, money, etc.) of ancient peoples. His history follows the Biblical narrative, but he corroborates with outside sources, rationalizes miracles, and is the first English clergyman to treat the Jews as an Oriental tribe. His openness to Biblical criticism led to this book being condemned.

  • Genre/Form:  Publishers’ advertisements -- New York (State) -- New York; Publishers’ cloth bindings (Binding) -- 1830
  • Subject:  Jews -- History.
  • Notes: Francis L. Hawks copy, gift of William Niblo, 1867 ; each vol. has bookplate of John B. Moreau, with mss. numbering "101" for v. 1, "102" for v. 2, "103" for v. 3 ; bookplates have engraver’s signature: "Howlands."
  • References: Singerman 0493 nn, Rosenbach 322, Cooper 2576
  • Call number: Hawks-Niblo Collection AC1 .H37 no. 1-3

78. Judson, Roswell. Two epistles of free stricture, on the American dictionary of Mr. Webster, on the Hebrew grammar and Hebrew chrestomathy of Mr. Stuart, and on the manual Hebrew lexicon of Mr. Gibbs addressed to Rev. Eleazar T. Fitch, D.D. divinity professor in Yale College. (New-Haven: : Printed at the Herald Office., 1830).

  • Genre/Form: Encyclopedias and dictionaries. 
  • Subject:  Classical dictionaries; Webster, Noah, 1758-1843. American dictionary of the English language; Stuart, Moses, 1780-1852. Hebrew chrestomathy; Gibbs, Josiah W. (Josiah Willard), 1790-1861. Manual Hebrew and English lexicon; Stuart, Moses, 1780-1852. Grammar of the Hebrew language
  • Call number: Offsite PE1617.W4 J83 1830

79. Frey, Joseph Samuel C. F. (Joseph Samuel Christian Frederick). A new edition of a Hebrew grammar, considerably altered and much enlarged. (New York: S. Hoyt & Co., Frankling Buildings, 1831).  

Frey, a Hebrew teacher and a Jewish convert to Christianity (and founder of the American Society for Meliorating the Condition of the Jews; see also Entries 54, 64, 69, and 72), wrote this “simple yet comprehensive” grammar to aid Christians in both understanding the Old Testament and converting Jews. Every chapter includes rules and exercises, “so that practice and theory” might go hand in hand. Adapted from a grammar originally used by a missionary school in Germany. Reading passages come from the Old and New Testament and include the genealogy of Jesus. In the preface to the current edition, Frey expresses hope that the increase in Hebrew learning he’s witnessing will soon be followed by the salvation of the Jews.

  • Genre/Form: Hebrew grammar
  • Subject: Hebrew language -- Grammar.
  • Notes: Inscribed by “Samuel H….” in 1838
  • Call number: Y1831 .Fre

80. Turner, Samuel Hulbeart. The claims of the Hebrew language and literature:in three lectures delivered in the chapel of Columbia College, 1831. (Andover: Printed by Flagg and Gould, 1831).  

Three lectures by Samuel Turner, Professor of Biblical Learning at the Episcopal Theological Seminary and Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature at Columbia College. Turner defends the Hebrew language from criticisms of it being “unoriginal” and “impoverished” and explains why people should invest the time in learning it just as they do Greek and Latin. He discusses the merits gained by learning Hebrew as with any language (history, poetry, discipline) and the merits specific to Hebrew itself (insight into divine wisdom and instruction, better understanding of the Hebraistic New Testament Greek). He refutes the German Bible critics who try to undermine the religious reverence Hebrew deserves but also urges people who are not religious to give the language a chance. While Hebrew may be “imperfect,” “no language is more vividly poetic.”

  • Genre/Form: lecture on Hebrew
  • Subject: Hebrew language; Bible -- Language, style.
  • References: Singerman 0521 nn, Rosenbach 339, Bruntjen 9464
  • Call number: Pamph BS537 .T87 1831

81. Livermore, Harriet. Millennial tidings. 4 volumes.(Philadelphia: Published by Harriet Livermore, 1831-1839).   

Livermore hoped to pass on to the American public Joseph Wolf’s great news that the restoration of the Jews and the Second Coming of Jesus would be happening in 1847, just 16 years away. Wolf was a Jewish convert to Christianity engaged in missionary work among Jewish communities in Europe and Palestine. Over the course of four volumes, Livermore gives a detailed sketch of Wolf’s history (drawing from his journal and letters), an overview of the Millennium (“a new and strange doctrine”), the restoration of the Jews, and proof that the “poor, afflicted” Native Americans are descendants of the Ten Lost Tribes (see also Entries 14, 21, 47, 71, and 85). In the preface to the second volume, she admits that the first volume was met with “cold contempt,” but that won’t stop her from spreading love of Jesus.

  • Genre/Form:
  • Subject:  Wolff, Joseph, 1795-1862; Millennialism -- United States; Millennium (Eschatology); Lost tribes of Israel; Indians of North America -- Missions; United States -- Church history -- 19th century.
  • Notes:  N-YHS has author’s autograph presentation copy to William [Crickman?], dated July, 1839.
  • References:  Singerman 0513
  • Call number:  BT890 .L58 1831

82. Irving, C. (Christopher). A catechism of Jewish antiquities: containing an account of the classes, institutions, rites, ceremonies, manners, customs, &c. of the ancient Jews: adapted to the use of schools in the United States. Fifth edition. (New-York: Published by Collins and Hannay, Pearl-Street, 1832, c[1822]). 

Written by a Christian for Christian schoolchildren who needed an education in Judaism to understand obscure passages in Scripture. Written in question-answer format. Divided into three sections: civil state, ecclesiastical state, and domestic conditions. Ends with Maimonides’s 13 Principles. Addresses Jewish festivals, customs, ancient rites. Very detailed, littered with sarcastic/cynical comments about Jews.

  • Genre/Form:  Juvenile literature -- New York (State) -- New York -- 1832; Catechisms -- New York (State) -- New York -- 1832
  • Subject: Jews -- Antiquities.
  • Notes: Library copy bears signature of Catherine Moulle on cover and verso of frontispiece; Moulle’s notes pasted and laid in library copy.
  • References: Singerman 0348, Wolf 57, Shoemaker 9121
  • Call number: YC1832.Irv

83. Gibbs, Josiah W. (Josiah Willard). A manual Hebrew and English lexicon: including the Biblical Chaldee. Designed particularly for beginners. 2d ed. (New Haven: Hezekiah Howe; New York: J. Leavitt; Boston: Crocker & Brewster; Andover: Flagg & Gould, 1832).  

A lexicon of Biblical Hebrew for beginner students in higher schools and colleges. An abridged version of the 1826 Andover edition. Includes important proper names and definitions with verse references. Follows the example of Gesenius (see Entry 40) and Stuart (see Entries 36 and 50).  Gibbs (1790-1861) was a linguist, theologian, abolitionist, and professor of sacred literature at Harvard (as well as the father of renowned scientist Josiah W. Gibbs Jr., of the Gibbs energy constant). He compiled vocabularies of Hebrew, Greek, Arabic, as well as several American Indian languages.

  • Genre/Form: Dictionary-- Hebrew--  English
  • Subject: Hebrew language -- Dictionaries -- English; English language -- Dictionaries -- Hebrew.
  • Notes: Inscription on cover and first page “Russell Trevett”; on flyleaf “Russell Trevett August 1832 New York” with additional handwritten notes about his progress learning Hebrew
  • Call number: Hawks-Niblo Collection PJ4833 .G53 1832

84. Stokes, George [for the Religious Tract Society, London]. The manners and customs of the Jews, and other nations, mentioned in the Bible. (Hartford: Henry Benton, 1833). 

  • Genre/Form:
  • Subject: Jews
  • References: Singerman 0565, Rosenbach 362, Bruntjen 21371
  • Call number: offsite DS112 .S87 1833

85. Tufts, M. (Marshall). Shores of Vespucci; or, Romance without fiction. (Lexington, Ms. M. Tufts, 1833). 

The purpose of this “original” book is to give an accurate yet exciting account of the American story by combining “the interest of romance with the truth of history.” See p.191-196 for parallels between the American Indians and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel (see also Entries 14, 21, 47, 71, and 81). The author writes that is is “surprising” that interest in this subject seems to have dropped off.

  • Genre/Form: history
  • Subject: Indians of North America -- Northwest, Pacific; Fur trade -- Northwest, Pacific.
  • References: Singerman 0566, Bruntjen 21570, Wright I 2622
  • Call number:  PS3109.T39 S6

86. Bush, George. A grammar of the Hebrew language; with a brief chrestomathy for the use of the beginners. (New York: Leavitt, Lord & Co.; Boston: Crocker & Brewster, 1835). 

  • Genre/Form: Hebrew grammar
  • Subject: grammar
  • Call number: Offsite PJ4566. B86 1835.

87. David and Uriah; a drama in five acts founded on the exploits of the man after God’s own heart. (Philadelphia, Pub. by author, 1835). 

A play about the “holy” King David of Israel, of whom “there is scarcely to be found on the records of human depravity an individual whose life has been marked with more acts of atrocity.” While Milman’s play (see Entry 56) was meant to provide evidence of Christianity, this play “is offered to the public, not from any dislike toward those who honestly support a system of theology founded upon the Jewish Legends; but from a desire that people should examine these incredible tales through the medium of plain, unsophisticated common sense.” The playwright wants people to break free from their “blind and slavish devotion” to religion, and he hopes to find favor with the people who already “do not acknowledge the Jewish records of ancient ignorance, barbarism, and cruelty, as the proper basis of just laws and enlightened morality."

  • Genre/Form: religious drama
  • Subject: David, King of Israel -- Drama
  • Notes: Some debate whether the author is Samuel Judah or William Sinclair
  • References: Singerman 0598, Wolf 108b
  • Call number: PS991 .A1 D24 1835

88. Yeadon, Richard. The amenability of Northern incendiaries as well to Southern as to Northern laws, without prejudice to the right of free discussion; to which is added an inquiry into the lawfulness of slavery, under the Jewish and Christian dispensations; together with other views of the same subject, being a series of essays recently published in the Charleston Courier. (Charleston [S.C.]. : Printed by T.A. Hayden, 44 Queen-St., 1835). 

Series of essays defending the southern states’ right to slavery and criticizing the northern “incendiaries” who rabble-rouse with their call for abolition. Includes an essay entitled “Slavery Consistent with Religion and Christianity” (p.35-38) which uses Old Testament examples to prove that God not only does not condemn slavery but sanctions it; what God condones no man can call immoral or wrong.

  • Genre/Form: Anti-abolition literature.
  • Subject: Abolitionists; Slavery -- United States; Slavery in the Bible
  • Call number: E441 Box.Y375 A4 1835

89. Reynolds, Edward. Hints to students on the use of the eyes. Edinburgh : Thomas Clark, 38, George Street, MDCCCXXXV [1835] (Edinburgh : Printed by James Burnet, 5, Shakspeare Square). 

  • Subject: Eye -- Care and hygiene; Eye -- Protection; Light; Vision; Hebrew language -- Study and teaching -- Physiological effect; Greek language -- Study and teaching -- Physiological effect.
  • Call number: Offsite RE51 .R46 1835

90. A Serious and comical dialogue, that lately happened between Murdock Martin, a Scots Jew, of the thirteenth or lost tribe, a miserable miser, and his lunatick son John, at Albany Pier. (New York, N.Y.? : s.n., 18--?). 

One page of a dialogue between a Jew, his son, and a fellow miser. Full of anti-Semitic tropes—the  Jew as a traitor to his country, a miserly cheat, charging interest, and taking advantage of the good-hearted Christian public.

  • Genre/Form: broadsides
  • Subject: dialogue
  • Call number: Broadsides SY18-- no.69